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农作物有害生物绿色防控技术

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out t he party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n confus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and concerted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding to Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more high, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organization activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , servic e good members , grass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harv est as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

农作物有害生物绿色防控技术 有害生物的防控是农业生产的关键环节, 贯穿于农业生产的全过程, 是每一个农业生产经营 者和管理者(政府)所必须高度重视的问题,因此,农业部在 2006 年专门召开了全国植保 植检工作会议,具体研究全国的植保植检工作。这次会上,农业部提出了二个重要理念,那 就是公共植保和绿色植保。 第一节:公共植保 一、 概念:公共植保就是把植保工作作为农业和农村公共事业的重要组成部分,突出其社 会管理和公共服务职能。通过实施公共植保,将重大病虫害防控工作上升为政府行为,制定 防控应急预案,增强公共财政支持力度,逐步形成有效的应急工作体系。 二、 重要性: (一) 、有害生物种类多 农作物生物灾害包括虫害、病害、草害和鼠害,严重制约我国农业的可持续发展。据统计, 我国常见的农业有害生物有 1 648 种,其中,害虫 838 种、病害 742 种、杂草 64 种、害鼠 22 种,而且分布广、突发性强、成灾频率高,每年都有几种重大病虫草鼠害暴发和流行, 导致农作物大面积减产和失收,品质严重下降。 (二) 、主要有害生物的发生危害 1990 年小麦条锈病全国大流行,发病面积 600 多万公顷,损失小麦 265 万吨;1991 年水稻 褐飞虱在我国稻区特大发生,面积达 2 320 万公顷,损失稻谷 250 万吨;1992 年棉铃虫特大 暴发, 发生危害面积 400 万公顷, 全国损失棉花 3 000 万担, 直接经济损失 100 多亿元; 1993 年南方稻区稻瘟病流行,面积约 600 万公顷,损失稻谷 110 万吨;1995 年棉花黄萎病流行 成灾,导致皮棉损失 300 万担;1997 年吉林省玉米螟大发生,损失粮食 100 万吨以上;1998 年小麦赤霉病和纹枯病全国大面积流行,发病面积 1 500 多万公顷,等等。在全国大面积开 展防治的情况下, 每年仍因各种病虫草鼠害损失粮食 1 600 多万吨, 棉花 600 万担, 油料 140 万吨以上,几乎是 1 亿人的年口粮。 (三) 、引起有害生物严重发生的原因 农作物有害生物此起彼伏,防不胜防,再加之 21 世纪我国将进入新的一轮生物灾害频发期,故届时对我国 16 亿人口的食物安全将构成很大 威胁。与此同时,我国农业生态系统比较脆弱,重大有害生物种型不断变异,导致主栽生产 品种不断丧失抗性,失去继续种用的价值;农作物生物灾害预警能力差,减灾手段落后,难 以摆脱被动应付的局面; 化学农药投放量过大, 环境污染、 人畜中毒和农作物药害日趋严重, 有害生物抗药性不断产生,农产品农药残留量超标、质量下降,严重影响消费者的身心健康 和出口创汇;农业科研投入低(我国仅为国家年度财政预算总金额的 0.17~0.27%,世界平 均 1%,发达国家超过 5%),对一些重大生物灾害的成灾机理和灾变规律等方面的基础研究 薄弱,缺少高新技术的开发应用,致使关键防御技术革新后劲不足;农业科技推广服务体系 不健全,不少地方出现了“线断、网破、人散”的现象,农民素质比较低,防灾减灾水平不高、 意识不强,导致农业科技推广乏力,成果转化率低(我国不足 30%,发达国家在 60%左右), 许多植保科研成果尚未在农业生物灾害的防灾减灾中发挥重要作用。 上述问题是我国植保工 作面临的严峻挑战,不仅要正视,而且必须着手全力研究解决。 进入新的 21 世纪,世界性的农业科技革命及我国科技兴国和可持续发展的战略,为我 国农业科技的发展提供了大好的机遇, 如何进一步做好灾害生物的综合治理, 如何增强社会 综合减灾能力,是亟待正确认识和早日付诸实施的。我们认为,其基本途径应是:贯彻“预

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal party Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and impleme nt in depth General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important inst ructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d little succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaking, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng ed ucati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, sayi ng "education every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng o n. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e -t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n confus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and concerted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding t o Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organizatio n activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , g rass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

防为主,防救结合,综合治理”的防灾减灾总方针,以加强基础研究、开发应用高新技术为 前提,以革新关键防御技术、提高社会综合减灾能力为目标,全面开展农作物产前、产中、 产后生物灾害的研究与防治工作。 第二节:绿色植保 一、基本概念 绿色植保是指植物保护的方法和措施是“绿色”的, 许多专家把绿色植保又称为有害生物绿色 防控方法。 根据全国植保会议定义: 绿色植保就是把植保工作作为人与自然界和谐系统的重 要组成部分,突出其对高产、优质、高效、生态、安全农业的保障和支撑作用。这一定义的 核心是强调植保措施要与自然界和谐友好。因此,可以用一句简单明了的话来讲,绿色植保 就是采取与自然生态系统和谐友好的植保方法或措施(手段) 。因为植保措施与自然生态系 统和谐友好了,就不会破坏自然生态环境,就能保障农业生产及其产品质量安全。 有害生物危害是最为严重的自然危害之一。据有关部门统计,从危害频率及损失量比较,有 害生物的危害超过气候危害,位居自然灾害之首。防治有害生物危害就是与自然界打交道。 以往的防治,由于过度地依赖化学农药,特别是大量使用高毒农药,造成人畜中毒、农产品 残留超标、 农业生态环境受到污染和破坏的严重后果, 不仅由于高毒农药大量杀死自然天敌 或害虫产生抗药性,导致有害生物再猖獗,形成了加大农药用量、加大自然生态破坏、有害 生物再猖獗的恶性循环, 而且对人类生存环境及人类健康造成了威胁 (许多农药可破坏人体 免疫力而致癌致畸) 。这种人与自然界的不和谐现象,是每一个地球人都不愿看到的,许多 植保专家对这种以牺牲自然生态系统为代价的植保方法称为黑色植保。 今天, 我国人民十分 重要的任务是建设和谐社会, 我们植保工作者的具体任务是建设和谐植保, 和谐植保包括植 保工作社会系统的和谐,也包括植保措施与自然生态系统的和谐。因此,必须大力倡导绿色 植保方法, 杜绝和克服黑色植保现象。 关于黑色植保的恶果, 大家可阅读 《寂静的春天》 (Silent spring) ,这是由美国海洋生物学家雷切尔· 卡逊(Rachel Carson)编著的,这位被称之为“自 然生态保护之母”的女科学家,针对美国 40 年代以来由于大量使用 DDT 防治有害生物造成 生态破坏、环境污染的后果进行了四年的实地调查,并进行了科学的联想,描述了河流是死 亡之河,树林里再也听不见鸟儿的歌唱,农作物花而不实、人类因患上了许多怪病在痛苦中 挣扎的悲惨局面, 从此唤醒了人们在高毒农药使用中的迷茫, 奠定了自然生态环境保护的里 程碑。 二、绿色植保的基本要求 农作物病、虫、草、鼠等有害生物种类多、发生范围广、危害程度重,一直制约着农产品的 产量和品质,每年造成的产量损失 15%~30%,严重的可达 50%以上。我国农耕文明灿烂辉 煌,在与农作物病虫害斗争过程中,积累了丰富的综合防治经验,这些经验在当代绿色农业 中仍具借鉴意义。以化石能源投入为主的现代农业,虽说生产水平得到了极大提高,但面临 资源、环境、生态及食品安全等一系列问题,影响了农业的持续发展。现代科学技术突飞猛 进,赋予农作物有害生物控制理论新的内涵。特别是利用生物、生态和物理机械等绿色控制 技术来防治病虫害, 已成为可持续农业的重要手段, 也是绿色农业生产工作中病虫害防治的 必然选择。 绿色植保虽然是一种方法,但具有技术性、强制性二个特点,具体要求如下: (一) 、禁止高毒、高残农药的生产和使用。 1、农药的毒性 (1)概念:农药的毒性是指药剂对人体、家畜、家禽、水生动物和其他有益动物的危害程 度。 (2)等级:农药对人、畜的毒性可分为急性毒性和慢性毒性。所谓急性毒性,是指一次口 服、皮肤接触或通过呼吸道吸入等途径,接受了一定剂量的农药,在短时间内能引起急性病

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal par ty Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and imple me nt in depth General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d little succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaki ng, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, say i ng "education every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n c onfus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and conc erted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding to Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organization activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , grass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

理反应的毒性,如有机磷剧毒农药 1605、甲胺磷等均可引起急性中毒。慢性毒性是指低于 急性中毒剂量的农药, 被长时间连续使用, 接触或吸入而进入人畜体内, 引起慢性病理反应, 如化学性质稳定的有机氯高残留农药 666、滴滴涕等。 根据农药致死中量(LD50)的多少可将农药的毒性分为以下 5 级:1.剧毒农药。致死中量为 1 至 50 毫克/公斤体重。如久效磷、磷胺、甲胺磷、苏化 203、3911 等;2.高毒农药。致死中 量为 51 至 100 毫克/公斤体重。如呋喃丹、氟乙酰胺、氰化物、401、磷化锌、磷化铝、砒 霜等;3.中毒农药。致死中量为 101 至 500 毫克/公斤体重。 如乐果、叶蝉散、速灭威、敌克松、402、菊酯类农药等;4.低毒农药。致死中量为 501 至 5000 毫克/公斤体重。如敌百虫、杀虫双、马拉硫磷、辛硫磷、乙酰甲胺磷、二甲四氯、丁 草胺、草甘磷、托布津、氟乐灵、苯达松、阿特拉津等;5.微毒农药。致死中量为 5000 毫 克以上/公斤体重。如多菌灵、百菌清、乙磷铝、代森锌、灭菌丹、西玛津等。 2、禁止生产、使用的农药 1983 年以来,国家明令禁止生产、使用的农药有:六六六、DDT、毒杀芬、艾氏剂、狄氏 剂、甲胺磷、甲基对硫磷、对硫磷、久效磷、磷胺、毒鼠强等;禁止使用的其它农药有:二 溴氯丙烷、杀虫脒、二溴乙烷、除草醚、汞制剂、砷、铅类、敌枯双、氟乙酰胺、甘氟、氟 乙酸钠、毒鼠硅。 在蔬菜、果树、茶叶、中药材上不得使用的其它农药有:甲拌磷、甲基异柳磷、特丁硫磷、 治螟磷、内吸磷、克百威、涕灭威、灭线磷、蝇毒磷、地虫硫磷、氯唑磷、苯线磷等。三氯 杀螨醇,氰戊菊酯不得用于茶树上。 (二)大力倡导生态防治 1、 概念:良好的生态环境是植物健康生长的前提。根据病菌、蔬菜对生态条件的不同 要求,采用轮作,调节设施温湿度、光照等均可有效地控制许多病害。 2、实例:如一些霜霉菌和锈菌在昼温达 30℃以上,夜温达 20℃以上时很少产生孢子,一些 真菌的孢子要在水膜存在时才能萌发, 干燥土壤抑止线虫及其它土传病菌的生长。 在保护地 栽培中进行叶露的生态调控, 可有效地防治霜霉病及黑星病。 叶面上凝结的水珠是霜霉病等 病害发生的先决条件,叶面结露再加上适宜的温度病害就会迅速蔓延。通过调节通风,控制 棚内温、湿度,减少叶片结露,使病菌失去有利萌发的生态环境条件,减少病害的发生和蔓 延。 三、实施的具体措施 (一) 、农业防治(轮作、垄作、合理施肥、灌水、深翻伏晒等) 1、轮作 (1)实例:大豆重迎茬引起的病虫害及减产的原因: 病害:大豆根腐病;大豆胞囊线虫病;大豆疫病; 虫害:地下害虫;根潜蝇;食心虫 营养失调:缺硼钼等 有毒物质积累 改种玉米解决了问题。 2、新的种植方式 (1)大豆行间覆膜:来自农业部种植业司的消息说,我国大豆主产区黑龙江省通过应用行 间覆膜技术,拉动了大豆单产水平大幅度提高。示范证明,与常规栽培模式相比,大豆行间 覆膜技术增产率可达 30%以上。 采用大豆行间覆膜技术具有增温、保水两大优点。此技术应用于平播地块,在苗的行间覆盖 地膜。 干旱时, 以往的无效降水汇集到苗的根部渗入就变成了有效降水; 雨季时, 撤掉覆膜, 又使降水得到充分利用。同时,通过覆膜还可增加作物生长所需的有效积温。

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal party Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and impleme nt in dept h General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d litt le succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaking, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, sayi ng "educatio n every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n confus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and concerted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding t o Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organizatio n activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , g rass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

(2)大垅密:哈尔滨市巴彦县农业委员会,该县科技人员与美国大豆专家库波教授合作, 研究出了大豆“大垅密”高产栽培模式, 这项技术是把美国大豆平作密植技术与我国传统垅作 技术相嫁接,表现了很强的优越性,受到国内外专家的好评。大豆“大垅密”栽培技术先进性 在于: ①、提高土地利用率,通过增加株数达到合理密植,实现群体增产。 ②、扩大了绿色面积,提高了光能利用率,由于密度增加,大豆叶面指数相应增加,增强了 光能利用效果,同时提高了对土壤水分和养分的吸收能力。 ③、土壤保墒性能好,提高了抗旱能力,小垅改大垅减少了土壤表面积,使土壤水分损失相 对减少,发挥了良好的保墒作用。 大豆“大垅密”栽培技术平均亩增产 40.4 公斤,增产幅度 27%,亩增加经济效益 72.72 元, 全县 80 万亩大豆可增产粮食 3236 万公斤,实现产值 29,088 万元,增加经济效益 5817.6 万元。此项技术已成功推广到全国八个省、区,六十多个市、县及国营农场,在河北、内蒙、 辽宁、吉林等地均取得较好的增产效果,平均亩增产 47.6 公斤,增产率达到 28.6%。在我 省三十多个市、县示范推广中,平均亩产达到 202.8 公斤,突破了大豆亩产 200 公斤大关, 实现了稳产高产。 大豆“大垅密”栽培技术曾获得省农业厅科技成果二等奖、省农业厅丰收计划一等奖、市政 府科技成果一等奖,获得国家专利权,被国家科委列入“九五”国家科技重点项目——大豆大 面积高产综合配套技术研究与示范,被国家计委列为国家大型商品粮基地建设项目。 实践证明,这种高产栽培模式具有科技含量高,增产幅度大,可操作性强,得到了广大农 民的认可,有着较好的发展势头,是具有中国特色的大豆平作密植的一种新的栽培法。 (3)马铃薯大垅高畦种植 2、科学的肥水管理 (二) 、生物防治(天敌防治、如赤眼蜂防治鳞翅目害虫,BT 生物农药防治等) 1、概念:生物防治是指利用生物或生物产物来防治病虫害的理论与技术,包括选用抗(耐) 病虫品种,利用生物因子,微生物、植物、动物和转基因等农药防治,以及作物诱导抗性与 交叉保护作用等措施。 2、内容:以虫治虫;以菌治虫;以菌治病草; (1)以虫治虫:天敌种类有寄生性:主要有赤眼蜂、金小蜂、姬小蜂、丽蚜金小蜂、姬蜂、 茧蜂、寄蝇、头蝇等寄生性生物。 捕食性:瓢虫、草蛉、螳螂、小花蝽、捕食螨、青蛙、农田蜘蛛、蟾蜍、燕子和啄木鸟等捕 食性生物等。到目前,全世界大约有 130 多种天敌昆虫进入商品开发和大规模生产阶段。其 中,赤眼蜂是全世界害虫生物防治技术中研究最多、应用最广泛的一类卵寄生蜂。有 20 多 种赤眼蜂被大量繁殖和释放,每年放蜂面积在 3000 万 hm2 以上,主要用于玉米、水稻、甘 蔗、蔬菜和一些林木、果树,作物损失一般下降 70%~90%。此外,还可利用丽蚜小蜂防治 温室白粉虱,利用烟蚜茧蜂防治桃蚜、棉蚜。 捕食性动物:捕食性动物有猫、黄鼠狼、刺猬等,益鸟有猫头鹰,燕子、喜鹊、啄木鸟、蝙 蝠、 蛇、 蜥蜴、 青蛙、 蟾蜍等。 鸟类消灭害虫的威力很大, 一只燕子在一个夏季要吃掉 6.5 万 只蝗虫, 一只夜鹰一个晚上就可捕捉蚊虫 500 只, 一只猫头鹰一个夏季可捕食 1000 只田鼠。 (2)以菌治虫:白僵菌防治玉米螟;苏云金杆菌防治蔬菜上害虫;在耕作土壤中已发现了 百余种捕食线虫的真菌,其菌丝特化为不同形式的捕虫结构。Arthrobotrys 属捕食性真菌已 投入商业化生产,其制剂用于防治蘑菇的食菌线虫和西红柿根结线虫。 (3)寄生性生物防治病害:Sanford 和 Broadfoot(1931)首次报道可以直接利用寄生真菌 防治植物土传病害。迄今为 ,研究和应用较多的是木霉属的种,哈茨木霉(Trichoderma harzianum)和钩木霉(T. humatum)可以寄生立枯丝核菌和齐整小核菌菌丝;豌豆和萝卜种

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal par ty Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and imple me nt in depth General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d little succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaki ng, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, say i ng "education every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n c onfus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and conc erted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding to Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organization activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , grass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

子用木霉拌种,可防治苗期立枯病与猝倒病。此外,盾壳霉(Coniothyrium minitans )能有效 地控制菌核病的侵袭。 (4)以菌除草:菟丝子炭疽病菌可以防治大豆菟丝子。 3、生物农药防治 (1)概念:生物农药是指利用生物活体或其代谢产物,以及通过仿生合成具有特异作用的 农药制剂,是今后农药产业中的朝阳产业。 (2)种类:生物农药包括:微生物农药、农用抗生素、植物源农药、动物源农药和新型生 物农药等几大类。目前正式登记的生物农药品种有井冈霉素、农抗 120、多抗霉素、灭瘟素、 春雷霉素、硫酸链霉素、公主岭霉素、赤霉素和苏云金杆菌,临时登记品种有阿维菌素(虫 螨克)、浏阳霉素、棉铃虫核型多角体病毒、苦参碱、印楝素等。 ● 微生物农药:指利用具有繁殖能力的活体微生物或活体微生物的代谢产物制成的真菌制 剂、细菌制剂、病毒制剂、昆虫病原线虫、昆虫病原立克次体等。 ◆细菌型农药:如枯草芽孢杆菌、腊质芽孢杆菌、荧光假单孢杆菌、地衣芽孢杆菌、球形芽 孢杆菌、多粘类芽孢杆菌等。苏云金杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis, B.t.)制剂占国际生物农药市 场销售额的 80%,广泛应用于菜青虫、小菜蛾、玉米螟、棉铃虫、甜菜夜蛾等鳞翅目害虫 幼虫防治。在日本枯草芽孢杆菌亦已商品化,其商品名为 Bomkiller,被登记用于防治茄子 和西红柿的灰霉病及防治草莓的灰霉病和白粉病。 ◆真菌型农药: 主要白僵菌和布氏白僵菌制剂为主。 白僵菌杀虫剂通过消化道及体壁进行侵 入, 能使昆虫体内长满菌丝而形成僵硬的菌核导致害虫死亡, 每年应用白僵菌防治松毛虫和 玉米螟等的面积达了 70 万公顷以上。木霉菌已开发成功,取得农药登记注册,用于防治蔬 菜灰霉病。目前处于小试和中试阶段的真菌制剂还有绿僵菌、淡紫拟青霉、虫霉和蜡蚧轮枝 菌等。 ◆病毒型农药:有质型多角体病毒(CPV) 、核型多角体病毒(NPV)两类。列入农业部发 布的无公害农产品生产推荐农药品种的有甜菜夜蛾核多角体病毒、 银纹夜蛾多角体病毒、 小 菜蛾颗粒体病毒、 茶尺蠖核多角体病毒和棉铃虫核多角体病毒, 用于防治菜青虫、 斜纹夜蛾、 棉铃虫、茶尺蠖等。 ◆昆虫病原线虫制剂:占国际生物农药市场销售额的 13%,仅次于苏云金杆菌产品,被广 泛地用于防治农、林、牧草、花卉和卫生等重要土栖性及钻蛀性害虫。应用芜菁夜蛾线虫 (Steinernema fcltiac)防治心叶期玉米螟虫,幼虫死亡率达 80.4%~90.5%;小卷蛾线虫 (Steinernema carpocapsae)防治木麻黄星天牛,感染率 90%以上。 ◆昆虫病原立克次体:报道较多的是鳃金龟微立克次体(Rickettsiella mellolonthae),能引起 多种金龟子的大量死亡。 ●农用抗生素:如春雷霉素、农抗 120、中生菌素、浏阳霉素、链霉素等,已经广泛应用的 产品有防治水稻纹枯病的井冈霉素,高效、广谱的杀虫、杀螨剂阿维菌素等。我国成功研制 了灭瘟素(B1asticidins)防治水稻稻瘟病(Pyricularia oryzac),春雷霉素(Kasugamycin)防治水稻 稻瘟病,井冈霉素(Jinggangmycin)防治水稻纹枯病病(Rhizoctonia solani),公主岭霉素防治黑 穗病,农抗 120 防治黄瓜白粉病、西瓜枯萎病、炭疽病等,武夷菌素(Wuyimycin)防治蔬菜 真菌病害如白粉病、 黑星病、叶霉病等,宁南霉素对烟草花叶病毒病、水稻自叶枯病、小麦、 蔬菜等白粉病有很好的防病增产作用。Schaeffer 等报道了从一组放线菌中所分离得到的具 有杀菌、杀虫、杀线虫活性物质,在 50ml/L 的低浓度下对水稻白叶枯病和葡萄灰霉病有效。 此外,可用阿维菌素防治小菜蛾、菜青虫、斑潜蝇等,农用链霉素、新植霉素防治多种蔬菜 的软腐病、角斑病等细菌性病害。 ●植物源农药:采用植物源性药物杀虫在我国有着悠久的历史。明朝万历 24 年(1596 年) 李时珍所编写的《本草纲目》叙述了 1892 种药品,其中有些如百部、藜芦、狼毒、苦参等 就是用来防治害虫的。 《周礼· 秋官》中就有记载的“植物性药物源有鱼藤、烟草、除虫菊、

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal party Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and impleme nt in dept h General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d litt le succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaking, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, sayi ng "educatio n every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n confus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and concerted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding t o Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organizatio n activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , g rass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

鸡血藤、雷公藤、苦树皮、黄杜鹃、百部、艾、穰、蒜、葱、韮、牡菊、苍耳、芫花、巴豆、 苦参、附子、茶叶等。目前,国际上开发最成功的植物源杀虫剂是印楝素,它对多种蔬菜害 虫有拒食、胃毒作用;中国已有皂素烟碱可溶性乳剂、鱼藤酮乳油、双素碱水剂、茴香素水 剂、硫酸烟碱、楝素杀虫乳油及“8811”植物农药等正式注册登记或临时登记。苦参碱、蛇床 子、茵陈蒿、桉树素、银杏素等植物源杀虫杀菌剂也已陆续开始商品化。随着人们对生态环 境的重视,植物源农药的开发也成了时尚,是绿色生物农药的首选。 ◆植物光活化毒素: 近年来, 人们发现一些植物次生物质在光照条件下对害虫的毒效可提高 几倍、几十倍甚至上千倍,显示出光活化特性。自 Berenbaum(1978)发现吠喃香豆素类化合 物——花椒毒素的光活化性质被首次以来, 陆续发现的植物源光活化毒素有多炔类、 噻吩类、 生物碱类、扩展醌类等,作为新型无公害农药有巨大的潜力。目前聚乙炔类化合物作为有害 生物控制剂在加拿大已取得了专利保护。 ◆植物精油:是一类分子量较小的植物次生代谢物质,主要分为萜烯类、芳香族类、脂肪族 类和含氮含硫化合物,主要对昆虫具有驱避或引诱、拒食、抑制生长发育、毒杀等作用。茴 芹油、香茅油、桉树油、天竺葵油、茉莉油、柠檬草油、桔油等已在美国商品化,国内商品 化种类极少。 ●动物源农药:指动物体的代谢物或其体内所含有的具有特殊功能的生物活性物质,主要包 括动物毒素如蜘蛛毒素、 黄蜂毒素、 沙蚕毒素等, 以及调节昆虫的各种生理过程的昆虫激素、 昆虫信息素如棉铃虫性诱剂、 甘蔗条螟性诱剂及天敌动物农药等。 用保幼激素的类似物处理 七星瓢虫雌虫,可促使它多产卵,繁殖出更多的瓢虫,用来防治蚜虫。用蜕皮激素喷撒,可 使昆虫过早地蜕皮,发育成没有生殖能力的成虫。利用昆虫或人工合成的性引诱剂,可以干 扰害虫正常交配,影响其生长发育和新陈代谢,使害虫缓慢而死,并影响下一代繁殖。已大 量推广使用或正在推广的品种有除虫脲、 氯氟脲(抑太保)、 特氟脲(农梦特)、 氟虫脲(卡死克)、 丁醚脲(保路)、米螨、虫螨腈(除尽)等。 ●新型生物农药——转基因农药:指利用转基因技术培育的抗病、虫、草转基因作物,如转 B.t.病毒(B.t.毒素基因在昆虫病毒中表达),转基因捕食螨(Metaseiulus occidentalis),转B.t. 基因棉花、玉米、马铃薯,转 Cpt I 烟草、水稻、马铃薯、草莓,抗病毒转基因甜椒、番茄、 烟草、水稻等。生物工程技术为生物农药的发展注入了新的活力,生物工程农药的发展无疑 是一个热点,但我国绿色食品和有机食品均禁止使用基因工程产品。 4、 诱导抗性与交叉保护作用 (1)诱导抗性:生物和非生物因子都能够诱导作物的抗性,诱导抗性机理主要涉及到寄主 的细胞结构变化和生理生化反应。诱导抗性因子中,生物因子研究较多的是拮抗菌,物理诱 导主要包括 γ-射线、离子辐射、紫外光照和热水处理等,化学诱导剂主要有 β-氨基丁酸 (BABA)、苯丙噻重氮(ASM)、水杨酸(SA)、茉莉酸(JA)和茉莉酸甲酯(MJ)等。目前为止,发 现了不少化学药剂具有植物激活作用, 其中已有不少作为农药产品投入使用, 如烯丙异噻唑 (probenazole)、乙膦铝(fosetyl-aluminium)、壳聚糖(chitosam)、激活酯(acibenzolar-S-methy1) 等。 人们还发现了不少天然物质具有抗病激活作用, 其中尤其是各种细菌或真菌类微生物更引人 注目。甲壳质(甲壳素)广泛存在于虾、蟹的外壳、昆虫外皮以及真菌的细胞壁中,研究发现 甲壳素能开启植物中多种信号传导途径,诱导作物产生多种抗性物质,具有预防、减轻或修 复逆境对植物细胞的伤害的作用,应用甲壳质农药对炭疽、疫病、病毒、枯黄萎、根腐等病 害等均可预防并直接控制。甲壳质农药对各种蚜虫均有明显的触杀作用,蚜虫触药后 4 小 时~12 小时即死亡。0.4%低聚糖素广泛应用于各种农作物、草原、森林等真菌类病害如赤 霉病、稻瘟病、纹枯病、锈病、枯萎病、碳疽病、溃疡病、轮纹病、疮痂病、黑星病、霜霉 病、白粉病、叶斑病、叶枯病的防治;从大连保绿宝海洋生命科学研发中心有限公司利用壳

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal par ty Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and imple me nt in depth General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d little succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaki ng, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, say i ng "education every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n c onfus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and conc erted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding to Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organization activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , grass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

寡糖柠檬酸盐愈伤剂防治果树根癌病,效果高达 99%;我们在研究中也发现壳聚糖对辣椒 疫霉病菌和水稻恶苗病菌有一定的抑制作用。 蔡新忠等(1996)实验证明,水杨酸(SA)叶面喷雾可减轻水稻幼苗稻瘟病的发生。刘凤 权等( 1998 )研究表明,毒性基因缺失突变体 Du728 处理水稻植株后,防病效果达 49.1%~50.2%。刘凤权等(2000)用水杨酸诱导水稻幼苗,稻叶的发病率、病斑长度和病情 指数都比清水对照明显降低。棉花受棉虫为害后,其株体内主要抗虫物质(棉酚和单宁)的含 量增加,降低了其对棉铃虫的适口性,扰乱了虫体内正常的生理代谢。蚕豆、黄瓜、香瓜通 过先接种产生局部病斑的侵染因子可以诱导出能系统保护免受真菌、细菌、病毒为害。 (2)交叉保护作用:交互保护作用是指接种弱毒微生物诱发植物的抗病性,从而抵抗强毒 病原物侵染的现象。一个非常成功的例子是巴西、阿根廷、乌拉圭柑桔病毒病的生物防治, 柑桔树经过弱毒菌株的接种可以抵抗强毒株系的侵染。 我国通过亚硝酸诱变得到了烟草花叶 病毒弱毒突变株系 N11 和 N14,黄瓜花叶病毒弱毒株系 S-52,将弱毒株系用加压喷雾法接 种辣椒和西红柿幼苗,可诱导交互保护作用,已用于病毒病害的田间防治。此外,华南农大 病毒室报道番小瓜环斑病毒(PRV)弱毒株防治 PRV;山东农业大学吴洵耻等报道,利用棉花 黄萎病菌的弱毒菌系 V6-3、V8-I 对强毒株系具有交互保护作用,可使病情下降 8.1%~ 61.2%;北京农业大学鲁素芸等人报道,利用从棉花维管束中分离出来的几种镰刀菌处理棉 花种子,可延缓和减轻棉花枯萎病的发生,小区试验的防治效果为 39.8%~90.7%;板栗疫 病病原菌(Cryphonectria parasitica)弱致病性菌株带有可传染的真菌病毒,已用于防治栗疫 病。 (三)生态控制(Ecology contro1) 1、概念:病害虫的生态控制,是指通过栽培、管理措施,创造有利于农作物生长发育,而 不利于病害虫繁殖、 蔓延的环境条件, 从而达到避免或控制病虫害的目的。 害虫的生态防治, 最早文字记载见于春秋战国。 2、措施: (1)适时播种:病虫害的发生与危害都有一定的最适时期和环境条件,在不影响作物生长 发育的前提下, 适当改变播种期, 可避开病虫害侵染和为害的最适时期, 从而减轻病虫危害。 油葵对菌核病的防治就是一种避病性,由于晚播使葵花的开花期与子囊孢子的放射期错开, 减轻了浸染;大白菜播种过早,往往导致霜霉病、软腐病、病毒病、白斑病发生较重,而适 时播种既能减轻病虫危害,又能避免迟播造成的包心不实。 (2)合理布局及轮作:合理品种布局可以限制病虫害的蔓延与扩散、推迟或减轻病虫危害。 轮作不仅有利于作物的生长, 而且可以减少土壤里的病源积累和单食寡食性害虫食源, 特别 是水旱轮作效果显著。在生产中按不同的种类、品种实行有计划的轮作倒茬、间作套种,既 可改变土壤的理化性质,提高肥力,又可减少病源虫源积累,减轻危害。蔬菜连作是引发和 加重病虫为害的一个重要原因。与葱、蒜茬轮作,能够减轻果菜类蔬菜的真菌、细菌和线虫 病害,水旱轮作可明显减轻番茄溃疡病、青枯病、瓜类枯萎和各种线虫病等病害。 (3) 抑病士利用:Fellow 和 G1yun(1934)分别在美国和英国发现小麦全蚀病的抑病士, Ger1agh(1968)在荷兰验证了小麦全蚀病抑病土的存在。酸性土壤有利于木霉孢子萌发,增 强对立枯丝核菌的抑制作用, 而碱性土壤有利于诱导荧光假单胞杆菌的抑病性。 连作小麦多 年的病田,全蚀病反而逐年减轻,甚至消失,这是由于土壤内积累了大量荧光假单胞杆菌等 有益微生物而成为抑病土。对许多病害的研究表明,抑菌土在自然界普遍存在,开发利用抑 菌土是病害生物防治的又一重要领域。 (4)生物多样性控制病虫害:以往农民大多将各式各样的蔬菜、果物和谷类等栽培在一块 土地上,这种不起眼的“见缝插苗”、“寸土必用”的吝啬种植方法,不仅节省了土地,而且也 牡绝了害虫与传染病的大规模侵袭, 使农作物免遭灭顶之灾。 研究表明, 栽培品种的多样化,

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal party Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and impleme nt in dept h General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d litt le succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaking, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, sayi ng "educatio n every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n confus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and concerted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding t o Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organizatio n activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , g rass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

能发挥天然防护壁垒的重大作用。朱有勇等(2003)发现水稻品种多样性混合间栽,对稻瘟 病有极为显著的控制效果, 尤其突出的是混合间栽中高度感病的优质地方稻品种对稻瘟病的 发病率、病情指数均有极显著的下降,防治效果达 83%~98%。 (5)选用抗(耐)病虫品种 选用抗(耐)病虫品种是防治植物病虫害最为经济有效的措施。贾思勰在《齐民要术 种谷 第三》中记载了 86 个谷子品种,其中 14 种“早熟耐旱,熟早免虫”。脱毒种苗繁育技术是防 治病毒病有效方法,采用马铃薯、大蒜、甘薯等脱毒种苗防治病毒病已大面积推广应用,并 取得良好效果。嫁接技术能有效减轻许多蔬菜病虫害的为害,瓜类、茄果类蔬菜嫁接可有效 防治瓜类枯萎病、黄萎病、青枯病等多种病害,如用黑籽南瓜嫁接黄瓜,防治枯萎病效果达 95%。 (6)稻鸭共育(共作)技术:稻鸭共育是利用鸭在稻田中不断觅食活动,起到捕虫、吃(踩) 草、耕耘且刺激水稻健壮生育等多功能效果。利用稻田中的杂草、昆虫、水中浮游物和底栖 生物养鸭,既保证鸭子生长,起到除草、灭虫、净田的良好效果,又具有过腹还田、增加土 壤肥力的作用。因此,稻鸭共育可大大减少化肥和农药用量,节省成本,并有利净化农田生 态环境,是开展有机水稻生产的一种有效方式。 (四) 、物理机械防治(Physical and mechanical contro1) 1、物理防治 (1)概念:主要利用热力、冷冻、干燥、电磁波、超声波、核辐射、激光等物理因素抑制、 钝化或杀死病原物,达到防治病害的目的。 (2)措施:利用热力治疗感染病毒的植株或无性繁殖材料是生产无病毒种苗的重要途径。 用热水处理种子和无性繁殖材料, 可杀死在种子表面和种子内部潜伏的病原物, 温汤浸种是 将种子用 55 ℃温水浸种 30 分钟,期间不停搅拌。棉杆经硫酸脱绒后,用 55~60℃的热水浸 种半小时, 可杀死棉花枯萎病菌和多种引致苗病的病原菌, 热水浸泡柑橘果实能有效控制贮 藏期间的腐烂。 处理休眠的马铃薯块茎治疗卷叶病的适温为 35~40℃, 较高的温度 (40~45℃) 可能钝化类菌原体,柑桔苗木和接穗用 49℃湿热空气处理 50 分钟治疗黄龙病效果较好。干 热灭菌是将种子放于 70℃恒温箱中,干热处理 72 小时,这样能较好的预防种子带菌传播的 病害。干热处理法主要用于蔬菜种子,对多种种传病毒、细菌和真菌都有防治效果。黄瓜种 子经 70℃干热处理 2~3 天,可使绿斑花叶病毒(CGMMV)失活。番茄种子经 75℃处理 6 天或 80℃处理 5 天可杀死种传黄萎病菌(Verticillium tricorpus) 。热蒸汽也用于种子、苗木 和温室及苗床的土壤处理,通常用 80~95℃蒸汽处理土壤 30~60 分钟,可杀死绝大部分病原 菌;高温闷棚,可减轻设施栽培病虫为害,例如 35~40℃高温闷棚,可控制黄瓜霜霉病蔓延。 冷冻处理也是控制植物产品(特别是果实和蔬菜)收获后病害的常用方法、冷冻本身虽不能 杀死病原物,但可抑制病原物的生长和侵染。低剂量紫外光照射桃、芒果、草莓、葡萄和甜 椒等果蔬产品可明显减轻采后病害。核辐射在 —定剂量范围内有灭菌和食品保鲜作用。 60 钴-γ 射线辐照装置较简单,成本较低,γ 射线穿透力强,多用于处理贮藏期农产品和食品。 微波是加热适于对少量种子、 粮食、 食品等进行快速杀菌处理。 用 ER-692 型微波炉, 在 70℃ 下处理 10 分钟就能杀死玉米种子传带的玉米枯萎病病原细菌。 2、除虫器械治虫 除虫器械经历了由简单到复杂的过程。简单的器械有铁丝、木杖、鞋底等。农书中记载用铁 丝钩杀树孔内蛀虫,用木杖击落树上尺蠖,用鞋底扑打蝗虫等器械治虫法。以后出现一些较 复杂的治虫器械,如刘应棠《梭山农谱》记载了一种专治稻苞虫的虫梳,“田家奋臂梳行, (虫)累累就弊矣,血肉俱糜梳上”,治虫效果较好。陈崇砥《治蝗书》记载了一种专治粘 虫的滑车,一人把滑车,“推入垄间,则两旁插尺包抄禾苗,拨动虫物滚入布袋 ,换垄推之, 数次可尽”,直至上世纪 50 年代华北地区仍在采用。

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal par ty Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and imple me nt in depth General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d little succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaki ng, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, say i ng "education every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n c onfus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and conc erted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding to Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organization activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , grass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

3、物理机械:常用的是人工用简单机械如竹竿、扫把、网兜等,利用害虫的假死性、群集 性等习性来消灭害虫。 4、套袋栽培:套袋蔬菜无病虫为害、无农药污染,品种优良,产量高,效益好,如果品、 黄瓜套袋,可直接阻隔病虫为害,有利于维生素 C 的形成,保鲜期长,耐储藏,且增产 10% 以上。 5、 诱杀技术:主要利用害虫的趋性将害虫诱到一处,集中杀灭。常用的诱杀方法有: ①灯光诱集法,主要利用害虫的趋光性,用白炽灯、高压汞灯、黑光灯、频振式杀虫灯等诱 杀鳞翅目害虫,达到杀灭成虫、降低田间落卵量,压低害虫基数,控制其为害的目的。 ②色板诱集法,主要利用害虫的趋色性进行诱集,如白色可诱集蓟马,用黄色捕虫板可诱杀 蚜虫、白粉虱、斑潜蝇等,用蓝色捕虫板可诱杀棕榈蓟马,田间铺设或悬挂银灰色膜可驱避 蚜虫迁飞传毒,减轻病毒病的发生;夏季高温期铺设黑色地膜,吸收日光能,使土壤升温, 能杀死土壤中多种病原菌。 ③糖醋诱集法,利用害虫的趋化性进行诱集,主要诱集夜蛾科害虫,如小地老虎、斜纹夜蛾 等,糖醋比例为:糖 3、醋 3、酒 1、水 l0,为了提高防治效果,也可在糖醋中加入适量的 农药。 ④性诱剂诱集法,在害虫多发季节,每 667 m2 排放水盆 3~4 个,盆内放水和少量洗衣粉或 杀虫剂,水面上方 l~2 cm 处悬挂昆虫性诱剂诱芯,可诱杀大量前来寻偶交配的昆虫,目前 已商品化生产的有斜纹夜蛾、甜菜夜蛾、小菜蛾、小地老虎等的性诱剂诱芯。 (6) 覆盖防虫网、薄膜等直接阻止害虫为害:覆盖塑料薄膜、遮阳网、防虫网,进行避雨、 遮荫、防虫隔离栽培,减轻病虫害的发生。蔬菜覆盖防虫网后,基本上能免除菜青虫、小菜 蛾、甘蓝夜蛾、甜菜夜蛾、斜纹夜蛾、棉铃虫、豆野螟、瓜绢螟、黄曲条跳甲、猿叶虫、二 十八星瓢虫、蚜虫、美洲斑潜蝇等多种害虫的为害,控制由于害虫的传播而导致的病毒病的 发生,还可保护天敌。 (五) 、人工防治 我国古代已有开沟陷杀、人工捕打和掘卵的方法进行害虫人工防治,减少危害的记载。 利用蝗虫翅膀未长出,只能跳跃、不能飞行的特点,开沟陷杀蝗虫。明代徐光启在《农政全 书· 备荒考》中有很详细记载:“已成蝻子,跳跃行动,便须开沟捕打。 《捕蝗考》记载人工 捕打蝗虫的方法。“蝗最难死……宜用旧皮鞋底……之类,蹲地相搭应手而毙,且狭小而不 伤苗种。 人工防治是最古老、 沿续至今仍在采用的有效病虫害防治办法, 是一种省工、 省钱、 无污染、 切实可行的途径,包括人工捕捉、摘除病虫枝及清扫田园枯枝烂叶等项措施,以压低病虫害 发生基数。稻田冬季翻耕、灌水,可减少螟虫越冬基数;秧田期可采用人工摘除螟虫卵块, 减少本田期三化螟、二化螟虫源;采用人工捕杀成虫、砸卵、击杀幼虫等人工方法防治云斑 天牛的成虫、卵及进入木质部之前为害的当年生小幼虫,既经济、简便,又高效、无农药污 染;人们可以利用老鼠穴居、盗食的活动规律,巧设机关,采取堵、挖、灌、焚、赶等方法 来捕捉害鼠。 四、实现绿色植保的基本方法 怎么才能实现绿色植保?应从四个方面入手: (一) 、加强科学研究。重点是农业有害生物的发生消长规律的研究、未来发生趋势的研究、 防控技术的研究 (特别是遗传防治、 生态防治、 生物防治、 防治标准的研究要作为重中之重) 、 农业生态环境监测等。 科学研究是基础是前提, 没有这一基础和前提, 绿色防控就难以实现。 (二) 、制定科学的实施方案。在科学研究的基础上,要根据绿色植保的基本要求,制定科 学可行的绿色植保工作方案,对防治策略、防控目标要求、技术措施、组织保障措施、工作 进程等进行细化。

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal party Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and impleme nt in dept h General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d litt le succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaking, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, sayi ng "educatio n every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n confus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and concerted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding t o Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organizatio n activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , g rass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

(三) 、加强宣传和培训。通过宣传和培训,让我们的政府领导、农业技术干部、广大农民 群众及相关社会群体对绿色防控的意义、 措施和方法有一个清清楚楚明明白白的认识, 从而 自觉地支持或投身于绿色防控工作中。 (四) 、抓好实施和总结提高。首先行政部门要统一安排和部署绿色防控工作,要采取签订 目标管理责任书的形式靠实任务; 其次要组建一支过硬的绿色防控实施队伍 (包括技术过硬、 设置过硬) ;第三是经费的保障和支持,绿色植保服务于国家和全社会,所需经费财政部门 必须予以保障;第四是进行督促检查和总结,发现问题及时纠正,总结出宝贵的经验要及时 交流。 五、绿色控制技术发展趋势及存在的问题 尽管农作物有害生物绿色控制技术措施有了长足的发展, 但在研究开发和应用等方面仍存在 一些突出问题。无论控制速度,还是控制效果,均不及化学农药,使用上往往需要有长远、 全面的眼光, 有时还需要牺牲局部的利益。 但随着人们对化学农药弊端和发展可持续农业重 要性的进一步认识,绿色控制技术必将为大众所接受。多种技术协调应用,也一定能发挥其 应有效力而造福千秋后代。 第三节:主要有害生物的绿色防控技术 蔬菜病虫害绿色防控技术示范方案 一、目标任务 1、建立核心示范区 ①示范作物为连片种植的露地栽培单一蔬菜,其环境条件,田间栽培管理等措施均一致。 ②面积 200 亩以上。 ③减少农药使用次数 3—5 次,亩增收效益 8%以上。 2、设立常规防治对照区 ①除防治病虫害措施不同外, 示范作物种类, 环境条件, 田间栽培管理等措施同核心示范区。 ②面积 50 亩以上。 3、带动辐射推广 ①作物种类、品种不限,要求连片种植的露地栽培蔬菜。 ②辐射推广面积 1 万亩以上。 ③减少农药使用次数 1—3 次,亩增收效益 5%以上。 二、实施内容 1、核心示范区设立标示牌 在核心示范区显著位置设立“蔬菜病虫害绿色防控示范区”标志牌, 注明示范内容和关键技术 要点,技术依托单位及实施单位。 牌子大小:3.0 米(长)×1.8 米(宽) 。 2、实施绿色控害技术 ①频振式杀虫灯防治蛾类等具飞翔能力害虫应用技术。 ②黄板诱杀蚜虫、粉虱、斑潜蝇等害虫技术。 ③篮板诱杀蓟马、种蝇等害虫技术。 ④性诱剂诱杀小菜蛾、甜菜夜蛾、斜纹夜蛾、姜螟等害虫技术。 ⑤天然除虫菊素防治蚜虫、菜青虫等生物农药防治病虫害技术。 3、建立示范档案 在核心示范区、辐射推广区、常规防治区分别建立田间病虫防治档案,详细记载各项病虫草 害防治措施和投入情况,并注意积累有关图片资料,对示范工作的关键环节、关键技术和关 键场面进行拍照、录像。 三、调查内容

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal par ty Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and imple me nt in depth General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d little succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaki ng, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, say i ng "education every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n c onfus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and conc erted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding to Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organization activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , grass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

1、记载主要病虫发生种类、发生规律、发生特点,主要天敌发生动态,并拍摄鉴别图片。 2、核心示范区、辐射推广区、常规防治区分别建立田间病虫防治档案,详细记载各项病虫 草害防治措施和投入情况,分别记入附表 1,包括农业措施、物理措施、生物防治、化学防 治等均要记载。 3、核心示范区在害虫发生盛期,隔 2—5 天分别调查频振式杀虫灯和性诱剂诱虫种类数量, 并将结果记入附表 2、3。 4、收获时核心示范区、辐射推广区、常规防治区分别进行实地测产,调查蔬菜品质级别, 核算经济效益填入附表 4。 四、工作要求 1、切实加强组织领导。精心组织,周密安排,确定 1 名技术负责人,固定 1—2 人负责此项 工作。 2、突出防治重点。核心示范区要根据实施方案要求,视当地实施作物病虫发生情况,针对 1—2 种主要防治对象制定技术方案。 3、做好宣传普及。在示范过程中,根据示范进度和效果及时向当地政府和上级业务部门汇 报,适时组织召开现场会进行宣传。通过新闻媒介宣传等多种活动,搞好技术宣传培训,以 带动面上绿色控害技术的推广。 4、狠抓技术推广。积极争取政府的重视和支持,努力与有关部门沟通,形成政府牵头,部 门协作的强大推广体系。 积极争取专项资金扶持绿色控害技术推广工作, 争取列入当地财政 预算。积极探索,扶持鼓励专业合作社组织等多种形式的专业化防治队伍,开展专业化统一 防治,加快绿色控害技术的推广普及。 5、落实示范推广物资。示范单位按照示范方案要求,尽快落实实施绿色控害技术示范推广 所需物资,以确保示范推广工作的顺利开展。 6、做好示范推广总结。项目结束后,及时整理数据和图片资料,认真分析数据,写出示范 推广工作总结和技术总结报告,分析绿色控害技术的示范推广效益,提出其应用前景,及取 得的经验建议等。 附表 1—1 田间病虫防治档案 日期 防治对象 防治措施 调查田类型:核心示范区 方 法 步 骤 农药使用量(克、毫升/亩) 注

附表 1—2 田间病虫防治档案 日期 防治对象 防治措施

调查田类型:辐射推广区 方 法 步 骤 农药使用量(克、毫升/亩) 注

附表 1—3 田间病虫防治档案 日期 防治对象 防治措施

调查田类型:常规防治对照区 方 法 步 骤 农药使用量(克、毫升/亩) 注

附表 2 频振式杀虫灯诱虫情况调查表 调查日期 调 查 灯 数 量 诱集害虫种类数量(头) (盏) 甜菜夜蛾 地老虎 小菜蛾 其他

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal party Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and impleme nt in dept h General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d litt le succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaking, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, sayi ng "educatio n every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n confus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and concerted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding t o Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organizatio n activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , g rass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

附表 3 性诱剂诱虫数量调查表 调查 日期 调查性诱剂数 诱扑害虫数量(头) 量(个) 甜菜夜蛾 姜螟 小菜蛾

附表 4 示范田综合效益分析 调查田 类型 核心示范区 辐射推广区 常规防治对照 区 大豆苗期病虫害无公害防治制剂的筛选推广应用 技术研究技术总结报告 大豆苗期病虫害无公害防治制剂的筛选推广应用技术研究课题组 一、立题依据与设计指导思想 呼伦贝尔市春季低温干旱,作物苗期病虫害危害严重,导致缺苗断条,近年来应用种子包衣 剂防治取得了较好的效果,但目前生产上应用的种衣剂和拌种剂多是由克百威、甲拌磷、甲 基柳磷等药剂同杀菌剂和微肥复配而成, 严重影响了作物苗期病虫害的可持续治理, 并对人 畜安全,自然生态环境构成了极大的威胁。尤其是加入 WTO 后,病虫害防治必须向“无害 化”治理,生产出优质、绿色、无公害的农产品,才能进入市场。探明无公害的药剂、肥料 及其混合制剂防治大豆苗期病虫害, 对确保人民的身体健康, 促进农产品走向国际市场和农 业的可持续发展均具有重要的意义。 随着环境保护呼声的日益高涨, 高毒农药的大量使用对农业生产及生态环境造成的负面影 响已引起世界范围的广泛关注。 因此, 许多国家和一些国际组织纷纷制定法规禁止或限制高 毒农药的使用,如联合国粮农组织及环境规划署规定了《PIC 公约》 ,对 22 种农药《其中包 括 4 个高毒有机磷杀虫剂》作出进出口限制。美国颁布了《联邦食品安全法》 ,要求重新对 每种农药进行全面的危险性评估。 国内有关部门已出台了一系列限用或禁用高毒农药的政策 和措施。国家石化局和农业部已制定出中国农药工业“十五”发展规划,要求在“十五”期间, 彻底削减高毒有机磷杀虫剂, 同时要大力开发新型高效替代品种。 作为高毒化学农药使用量 居世界前列的国家,我国对高毒化学农药的控制已经到了非常紧迫的时候。我国加入 WTO 后,环保因素在国际贸易中日趋重要,我国农产品出口因农药残留受到严重影响,仅 1998 年因此被退货即达 74 亿美元。为此同内开展了一些这方面的研究。 黑龙江省是全国最大的绿色食品生产省份, 生产绿色食品收益高、受欢迎,哈尔滨德赛化 工有限公司利用中医“辩证施治”理论和中药“科学配伍”原理, 率先开发出了营养保护型中药 拌种剂“速发 1 号”已经取得了突破性的进展。经黑龙江省植保站和各地使用、试验调查,一 致反映:在防治大豆根腐病、促进根系生长和提高产量,三个方面都已经超过了常规多福克 施药 次数 亩产量 示范区亩减 示范区亩增 ( ㎏ / 少成本(元) 收入(元) 亩) 优质果 示范区亩增 率(%)效益(元) 示范区亩增 收节支(元)

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal par ty Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and imple me nt in depth General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d little succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaki ng, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, say i ng "education every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n c onfus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and conc erted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding to Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organization activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , grass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

种衣剂。该产品 2003 年在黑龙江省获得登记,批准生产。 2001 年许艳丽研究员主持了大豆根腐病生物防治专题的研究。该专题针对目前生产上对大 豆根腐病病的防治多是采用易对大豆和土壤造成污染的化学农药和种衣剂拌种, 不利于保护 生态环境和发展绿色食品这一生产上的难题,开展了利用有益微生物防治大豆根腐病研究。 研究发现, 木霉菌的可有效地抑制尖孢镰刀菌在土壤中的种群数目, 增加大豆苗期鲜重和干 重;其生防机制主要是提高大豆根部防御酶——过氧化物酶 POD 的活性、木霉菌株可与致 病菌竞争 C 源和可溶性 P 元素、对尖孢镰刀菌和丝核菌有重寄生作用。经室内拮抗活性测 定和盆栽防效试验, 筛选出 6 个对尖孢镰刀菌和立枯丝核菌有较好防效的细菌菌株, 防效达 52.1%-78.5%。待测菌株与尖孢镰刀菌和茄腐镰刀菌共培养后,使病原菌菌丝干重减少了 34.58%—71.48%,待测菌株的分泌物对病原菌抑菌率为 51.1%—90.6%,菌株 B57 对大豆根 腐病的拮抗效果最好。 针对呼伦贝尔市大豆生产实际和国内外研究现状我们在无公害种衣剂 筛选,生物菌剂,生物肥以及松树皮粉松木屑应用等方面进行了系统的研究,取得了较好的 效果。筛选出了适合于当地生产的制剂和制剂配方,可有效地控制大豆苗期根腐病、孢囊线 虫病和根潜蝇的危害。在当地生产中推广应用取得较好的经济、社会生态效益。 二、试验材料与方法 (一)试验材料 1、农药:(1)1.8%齐螨素 EC(桂林集琦药业股份有限公司);(2)0.26%苦参碱杀虫水剂(山西绿 丹中草农药有限公司);(3)卫福悬浮种衣剂 200FF(美国有利来路化学股份有限公司);(4)2%好 普水剂(大连凯飞化学股份有限公司)。 (4)35.6%阿维菌素、多菌灵、福美双悬浮种衣剂(简 称为阿多福,中种集团农业化学有限公司生产);(5)35%多、福、克悬浮种衣剂(河北省北农 (海利)涿州种衣剂有限公司; (6)绿満地拌种剂(四川省资中县植物 药业研究所研制);(7) 防孢囊线虫种衣剂(自配);(8)绿満 地杀虫剂(四川资中县植物 药业研究所);(9)防根结线虫 剂 ( 四川省资中县植物药业研究所研制 ); (10) 3%呋喃丹 G(河北省北农(海利)涿州种衣剂 (11)50%多菌灵(多硫超微)WP(江苏省新沂农药有限公司);(12)1.8%阿维菌素 WP(英国诺普 信农化有限公司)。 2、 生物制剂: (1)厚垣轮枝菌 G(中种集团农业化学有限公司生产; 由内蒙农科院植保所提供) 有限公司)。 (2)绿色木霉(选用食用菌生产污染料) (3)酵素菌肥(扎兰屯市酵素菌肥肥 业公司生产) 。 3、肥料及抑菌剂: 肥料: (1)混复肥(扎兰屯市 农业技术推广中心混复肥广生产) ; (2)磷酸二铵(美国进 口) ; (3)酵素菌肥(扎兰屯酵素肥业公司生产) 。 抑菌剂: (1)松树皮粉(选用落叶松树皮粉粉碎成粉) ; (2)松木屑(当地加工) 。 (二)试验方法 1、室内盆栽试验方法 试验采用完全随机化设计, 共设 5 个处理。 每一处理种植两个营养钵内, 按 10g 种子用 0.32me 药剂拌种处理。 以不用种衣剂拌种为对照, 采用人工点播的方法播种后放在田间自然条件下 生育。并与苗期、花期调查测定大豆植株鲜重,生物学性状及病虫害发生情况,将结果进行 系统的整理与分析。 2、田间小区试验 选择多年重茬的地块,土壤中孢囊含量为 64 个╱50g。田间采用复因素随机区组法设计, 三行区,行长 10m,行距 0.65m,小区面积 19.5m2,设三次重 。 种植前采士样测定营养含量及孢囊数量, 大豆苗期测定出苗情况, 苗期大豆孢囊数量及生 物学性状,后期测定产量及其经济性状。 3、大区试验示范方法

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal party Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and impleme nt in dept h General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d litt le succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaking, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, sayi ng "educatio n every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n confus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and concerted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding t o Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organizatio n activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , g rass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

试验采用大区对比法设计,每大区 8 行区,行长 60 米大区面积为 312 平方米。调查处理后 生物学性状、产量性状及对病虫害的防治效果。 三、试验过程与结果 (一)无公害种衣剂的应用效果 1、无公害种衣剂对大豆苗期病虫害的防效 (1) 盆栽试验结果 应用绿満地拌种剂(四川省资中县植物 药业研究所研制);防孢囊线虫种衣剂(自配);绿満地 杀虫剂(四川资中县植物 药业研究所); 防根结线虫剂 ( 四川省资中县植物药业研究所研制 ) 药剂处理后对大豆孢囊线虫病的防效分别为 72.84%、71.1%、79.4%64.7%;对大豆根腐病 的防效为 50%、 57%、 56%和 17%; 对大豆根潜蝇的防治效果分别为 50.7%、 62.97%、 62.97%、 0。 药剂处理后对大豆出苗无不良影响,药剂处理后使大豆株高根长等均无不良影响。绿満地 拌种剂(四川省资中县植物药业研究所研制);防孢囊线虫种衣剂(自配);绿満 地杀虫剂(四 川资中县植物 药业研究所);防根结线虫剂 ( 四川省资中县植物药业研究所研制 ) 处理后 使大豆根瘤数分别较对照增加 426.1%、73.91%、56.5%、169.57%;对大豆鲜重分别增加 94.12%、94.12%、88.24%、123.53%。 (2)田间试验结果 ①绿色大豆种衣剂对大豆根腐病的防效 大豆种衣剂低量苦参碱与硼钼微肥;白僵菌与硼钼微肥;微孢子虫与硼钼微肥;高量苦参碱 与硼钼微肥;齐螨素、好普、硼钼微肥(15ml+25ml+21g/667m2) ;齐螨素、好普、硼钼微肥 (10ml+13ml+21g/667m2) ;齐螨素、好普、卫福、硼钼微肥(15ml+25ml+26ml+21g/667m2) 处理后对大豆根腐病的防治效果分别为 40%、43.48%、30%、46.15%、55.79%、49.85%和 41.8%,几种处理间差异不显著;35.6%阿、多、福 1:80 包衣;35%多、福、克 100g(有效 成分)拌 100kg 种子、35.6%阿、多、福 1:120 包衣、35.6%阿、多、福 1:100 包衣处理对 大豆根腐病均有较好的效果,防效分别为 94.6%、91.9%、79.7%和 66.3%,苗期限调查根白, 健壮。35.6%阿、多、福、1:80 包衣同单用多菌灵处理的防效接近,防效分别为 47.3%和 43.2%。 ;1.8%阿维菌素 5g(有效成分)拌 100kg 种子对根腐病的作用不大。 ②绿色大豆种衣剂对大豆根潜蝇的防效 除白僵菌与硼钼微肥处理后大豆根潜蝇发生较对照加重外,其它处理均表现较好的效果。 其中微孢子虫与硼钼微肥;高量苦参碱与硼钼微肥;齐螨素、好普、硼钼微肥 (15ml+25ml+21g/667m2) ;齐螨素、好普、硼钼微肥(10ml+13ml+21g/667m2) ;齐螨素、 好普、卫福、硼钼微肥(15ml+25ml+26ml+21g/667m2)处理的防效达 100%,低量苦参碱与 硼钼微肥处理后防效为 74.9%。35.6%阿、多、福 1:80 包衣;35.6%阿、多、福 1:100 包 衣;35.6%阿、多、福 1:120 包衣;35%多、福、克商品量 1:80 包衣的防治效果分别为 100%;1.8%阿维菌素 5g(有效成分)拌 100 kg 种子;50%多菌灵 100g(有效成分)拌 100kg 种子;35%多、福、克 100g(有效成分)拌 100kg 种子的防治效果均为 66.7%。 ③绿色大豆种衣剂对大豆孢囊线虫病的防效 以 35.6%阿、多、福 1:100 包衣和 35%多、福、克商品量 1:80 包衣的孢囊数较对照极显 著降低,其防治效果分别为 48.3%和 50.6%,两种药剂间差异不显著。其次是多菌灵、阿维 菌素拌种和 35%多、福、克 100g(有效成分)拌 100kg 种子处理,大豆孢囊线虫数也较对 照显著降低,防治效果分别为 43.3%、35.5%、和 34.65 选配的其它 7 种种衣剂处理后大豆孢囊线虫数同对照没有差异,其因是大豆的孢囊多分布在 大豆的侧根上,应用的几类药剂拌种后内吸性差 ,对侧根上的线虫抑制作用较小 ,应进一步筛 选有效的无公害杀线虫剂组合到配方中。

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal par ty Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and imple me nt in depth General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d little succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaki ng, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, say i ng "education every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n c onfus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and conc erted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding to Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organization activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , grass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

2、无公害种衣剂的增产作用 (1) 无公害大豆种衣剂对大豆产量的影响 应用大豆种衣剂齐螨素、好普、硼钼微肥;低量苦参碱与硼钼微肥;白僵菌与硼钼微肥;齐螨 素、好普、卫福、硼钼微肥;高量苦参碱与硼钼微肥处理后较对照增产 29.3%、20%、18.2%、 18.1%和 17.2%。齐螨素、好普、硼钼微肥处理较对照增产 1.95%;微孢子虫与硼钼微肥;齐螨 素、好普、硼钼微肥(15ml+25ml+21g/667m2) ;齐螨素、好普、硼钼微肥表现不同程度的 减产。 (2)无公害大豆种衣剂处理后对大豆经济性状的影响 应用药剂拌种后齐螨素、好普、硼 钼微肥;高量苦参碱与硼钼微肥;低量苦参碱与硼钼微肥;齐螨素、好普、卫福、硼钼微肥;白 僵菌与硼钼微肥和齐螨素、好普、硼钼微肥 15ml+25ml+21g/667m2 处理的株粒数分别较对 照增加 51.1%、26.95%、14.89%、14.18%、7.8%和 1.06%。应用药剂拌种后齐螨素、好普、 硼钼微肥处理百粒重较对照增加 3.86%、其余处理较对照百粒重有不同程度的降低。应用药 剂拌种处理后高量苦参碱与硼钼微肥;低量苦参碱与硼钼微肥;白僵菌与硼钼微肥;齐螨素、 好 普 、 硼 钼 微 肥 ( 10ml+13ml+21g/667m2 ); 齐 螨 素 、 好 普 、 卫 福 、 硼 钼 微 肥 ( 15ml+25ml+26ml+21g/667m2 ) ;微孢子虫与硼钼微肥的株高分别较对照增加 18.1% 、 16.03%、13.12%、9.04%、9.04%和 8.16%。 (二)生物制剂的应用效果 1、生物制剂对大豆苗期病虫害的作用 (1)药剂对大豆孢囊线虫的防效 几种药剂处理后对大豆孢囊线虫病均有一定的抑制作用,厚垣轮枝菌 G200G/667M2;厚垣轮 枝菌 G500G/667M2;厚垣轮枝菌 G800G/667M2;和 3%呋喃丹 G4KG/667M2 处理防治效果 分别为 34.16%、26.1%、42.9%、和 58.1%。 厚垣轮枝菌 G800G/667M2 同呋喃丹沟施的差 异不大,可在生产上试用。 (2)对大豆根腐病的防效 厚垣轮枝菌 G200G/667M2;厚垣轮枝菌 G500G/667M2;厚垣轮枝菌 G800G/667M2;3%呋 喃丹 G4KG/667M2 处理后对大豆根腐病的防治 效果分别为 53.1%、 65.6%、 68.8%和 56.3%, 从轮枝菌和呋喃丹本身没有杀真菌的成分, 但根腐病表现下降, 有待进一步研究 (见表 1 ) 。 (3)对大豆根潜蝇的防效 呋喃丹沟施后对大豆根潜蝇防效达 100%,厚垣轮枝菌对根潜蝇也有一定的作用。 2、对大豆生物学性状的影响 (1)药剂对大豆出苗的影响 从表 2 可以看出厚垣轮枝菌 G500G/667M2 和 3%呋喃丹 G4KG/667M2 处理的每平方米株数 较对照分别增加 1.28%和 16.3%外,其它剂量处理后出苗率略有下降,但影响到不大。 表1 药剂对大豆孢囊线虫病及其他苗期病虫害的防治效果

处理 孢囊数(个/株)孢 囊 指 发病率(%) 根 腐 病 指 发病率(%) 根潜蝇被害率(%) 数 数 (1) 3.875 (2) 3.75 (3) 2.85 (4) 1.475 (5) 5.275 表2 16.815 18.885 14.585 10.7 25.54 77.5 75.0 67.5 48.75 87.5 6.563 5.0 4.063 3.988 13.125 18.75 13.75 12.5 17.5 40.0 0 1.25 0 0 1.25

药剂处理后对大豆生物学性状的影响

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal party Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and impleme nt in dept h General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d litt le succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaking, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, sayi ng "educatio n every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n confus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and concerted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding t o Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organizatio n activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , g rass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

处理

株 数较 根数 % (M2) CK± 26.975 -7.8 29.625 1.28 24.23 29.25 34.025 16.3 -25.5 21.65 22.3 22.05

± %

% 根 瘤± 数 (个/ 株) -53.3 8.05 11.3 15.9 12.625

% 株 高± (CM) 28.9 -7.4 -3 -2.6 -1.4 --

% 鲜 重± ( G/ 株) 22.7 28.1 25 26.93 -14.1 6.3 -5.4 1.91

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

15.65 5.9 -1.8 -5.7 1.13 --

-36.24 30.25 -10.49 30.4 25.9 -30.75 31.2

-17.2 20.8

26.425 --

(2)对大豆苗期生长的影响 厚垣轮枝菌 G200G/667M2;厚垣轮枝菌 G500G/667M2;厚垣轮枝菌 G800G/667M2;和 3% 呋喃丹 G4KG/667M2 处理后使大豆生育前期的株高较对照检查降低,分别降低了 7.4%、3%、 2.6%、1.4%;厚垣轮枝菌 G500G/667M2 和 3%呋喃丹 G4KG/667M2 处理后单株鲜重分别较对照增加 6.3%和 1.91%;其它处理的有不 同程度不同的下降; 厚垣轮枝菌 G200G/667M2 和 3%呋喃丹 G4KG/667M2 处理后使大豆根 数分别较对照增加 15.65%和 1.13%, 厚垣轮枝菌 G500G/667M2 和厚垣轮枝菌 G800G/667M2 处理后株高较对照有所下降,分别下降 1.8%和 5.7%;3%呋喃丹 G4KG/667M2 处理后使大豆 根瘤数较对照增加 25.9%, 厚垣轮枝菌 G200G/667M2;厚垣轮枝菌 G500G/667M2;厚垣轮 枝菌 G800G/667M2 处理后根瘤数分别较对照降低 53.3%、36.24%和 10.49%。 (3)药剂处理后对大豆产量及产量的影响 表 3 药剂处理后对大豆产量及产量性状的影响 处理 株数(株/m2) 株高(cm) 株荚数 秕荚数 株粒数 百粒重(g) 单株产量(%) 产量(kg/667m2) (1) 34.04 (2) (3) (4) (5) 28.1 26.2 30.9 31.15 69.5 69.45 67.23 70.2 73.35 16.1 13.9 18.4 16.1 14.4 0.7 0.9 0.65 1.35 0.6 40.7 48.1 49.6 43.6 36.9 13.90 14.70 14.50 14.55 14.58 5.46 6.20 6.33 5.40 5.64 124.3 116.5 107.5 112.18 110.6

厚垣轮枝菌 G200G/667M2;厚垣轮枝菌 G500G/667M2;厚垣轮枝菌 G800G/667M2;3%呋 喃丹 G4KG/667M2 处理后对大豆产量分别较对照增减了 12.38%、5.33%、-2.8%和 1.43%。 (4)对大豆产量性状的影响 厚垣轮枝菌 G200G/667M2、厚垣轮枝菌 G800G/667M2、3%呋喃丹 G4KG/667M2 处理后使 大豆株荚数较对照分别增加 11.8%、27.8%和 11.8%。 厚垣轮枝菌 G500G/667M2 处理后株荚数较对照略有降低; 厚垣轮枝菌 G200G/667M2、 厚垣 轮枝菌 G500G/667M2、厚垣轮枝菌 G800G/667M2、3%呋喃丹 G4KG/667M2 处理后使大豆 单株粒数分别较对照增加 10.3%、30.4%、34.4%、和 18.2%。厚垣轮枝菌 G500G/667M2、 厚垣轮枝菌 G800G/667M2 处理后大豆单株产量较对照增加 9.93%和 12.23%。 对百粒重的影 响到不大。 (三)松树皮粉松木屑的应用效果 1、抑菌剂与肥料混施后对大豆苗期病虫害的影响 8 图 1.不同大豆根系孢囊数量 (1)对大豆孢囊线虫的影响 应用松树皮粉, 松木屑, 绿色木霉, 呋喃丹沟施后对大豆孢囊线虫的防治效果分别为 62.19%、 28.1%、33.3%、83.4%。酵素菌肥较磷酸二铵的孢囊线虫病降低了 8.28%。

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal par ty Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and imple me nt in depth General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d little succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaki ng, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, say i ng "education every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n c onfus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and conc erted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding to Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organization activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , grass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

(2)对大豆根腐病的影响 几种处理对大豆根腐病的防效不大。松树皮粉、绿色木霉的发病率较对照分别下降了 5.47%和 13.5%(详见图 2) 。 图 2:不同处理对大豆根腐病的影响 (3)对大豆根潜蝇的影响 应用呋喃丹、松树皮粉、松木屑、绿色木霉和酵素菌处理后对大豆根潜蝇的防效分别 为 75%、29.14%、54.17%、66.67%、和 37.5%(详见 图 3) 。 2、对大豆生长发育的影响 (1)对大豆出苗的影响 通过表 2 可以看出:除了⑤号处理较对照成苗数降低了 8.97%外,其它处理均较对照苗数增 加,③②④⑧号处理分别较对照苗数增加了 112.1%、60.1%、37.7%、345%和 24.2%。表现 出对大豆出苗有一定的促进作用。

图 3:不同处理对大豆根潜蝇的影响 (2)对大豆地上部生育的影响 通过盆栽试验结果表明:①②③④⑤⑥⑦⑧⑨处理的株高分别 较对照增减率为-26%、- 3.9%、1.96%、17.65%、-10.1%、-10.98%、10.78%、6.7%、和-25.5%;鲜重分别较对 照增减了-34%、 -28.7%、 -35.3%、 -28%、 -30%、 -20%、 -31.3%、 -24.7%和-4.7%。 田间试验结果表明:了⑩处理株高较对照降低 1.3%外,其它处理均较对照增加,大体 范围在 0.99%-15.5%;①号处理鲜重较对照 下降 3.55%外,其它处理鲜重均较对照增加, 其⑧⑾⑨③处理分别较对照鲜重增加 60%、57.9%、51.96%、45%。 (3)对大豆地下部生育的影响 从盆栽试验可以看出:①②③④⑤⑥⑦⑧⑨⑩处理的大豆根长较对照降低(大体在 2.73%- -52.13%) ;⑧⑾较对照分别增加 2.73%和 9.29%;⑥⑦⑨⑩⑾处理的根数较对照分别下降 了 11.72%、11.72%、9.6%、1.2%、1.73%。 从田间试验结果看⑧号处理根数较对照增加 3.93%,其它处理根数均表现不同程度下降,其 中⑥号处理下降最大是 18.91%。①②③⑤⑥⑧⑨⑩⑾处理后大豆根瘤数量分别较对照增加 了 143%、 34.8%、 120.98%、 123.58%、 75.65%、 50.54%、 65.85%、 169.53%、 130.63%、 73.05% 和 307.35%。其中应用酵素菌肥后对大豆根瘤数量增加明显(见表 2) 。 3、处理对大豆单株产量及其经济性状的影响 通过表 3 可以看出:应用几类抑菌剂后使大豆单株产量 ⑥⑦⑧处理有所下降外(分别为 9.1%、5.98%和 30.59%) ;其它处理的单株产量均对照增加,增加的幅度在 13.1%--85.14%。 ⑥⑦⑧处理的株荚数、株粒数也较对照降低 ,其它处理均较对照增加。 四 技术关键与创新点 (一)技术关键 1.无公害制剂的筛选 采用室内盆栽试验与田间试验相结合的方法, 根据当地大豆苗期主要病、 虫害种类及发生危 害特点,筛选出无公害的药剂,生物制剂与肥料进行单施与多元混配试验,筛选出的适宜当 地大豆生产的绿色种衣剂配方、 生物制剂及其肥料类型等, 为国家高油大豆无公害生产提供 了技术保障。 2.无公害制剂应用效果显著 经过田间小区试验和大田示范表明:筛选出的制剂对大豆安全,对环境无污染环境,可以有

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal party Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and impleme nt in dept h General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d litt le succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaking, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, sayi ng "educatio n every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or confuse d in the end do not k now w hat's goi ng on. To realize "two a" lear ning pra ctice a ctivities a nd e ducation is the e ducation of the party's mas s line, "thre e-t hree" spe cial e ducation wa s another important practice in impleme nting the requirements of strictly admini stering the party. Comrade XI Jinping poi nted out: "the depl oyment of ' doing ' educati on, i s to pr omote the i nner -party e ducation from ' criti cal few ' their expansion int o the vast number of party members, extending from the conce ntrated educati on to reg ular educati on. "After 18, Central Committee of the party must handle part y, strictly a dministeri ng the party, a nd has carrie d out the party's mass line educati on pra ctice a nd" thre e-thr ee "spe cial e ducation, but focus on the lea ding cadre s abov e the county level. T he "two" study a nd e ducation, is carried out in t he whole party and all the party members. This is impl emented stri ctly admini stering the party, a n importa nt measure to

Xiaoping theory a nd the im portant t hought of the thr ee repres ents a nd the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt. Such cha nges were made , is conducive to impleme nting the innovation of Marxism in Chi na, es peci ally the s cientifi c concept of devel opme nt the strategic ta sk of arming the w hole party, play grass-r oots organizati ons i n pr omoting the sci entific Outlook on devel opme nt into the grass -roots l evel, and to impleme nt the important role . Thir d, how to use the contents of the new Constitution gui ding party buildi ng through studying t he ess ence of the new Constitution, the flexible application of the es sence of the Constituti on in party buildi ng, and I thi nk the key to gras ping the followi ng: to catch t he di sci pline , focus on strengtheni ng the party' s rules a nd reg ulations bi ndi ng. To strictly obs erve and carry out the party's political disci pli ne, ensure t he ce ntralism and unity of the whole party. Party cadre s, es pecially l eadi ng cadre s, both doers, but als o have a strong s ens e of politi cal aware nes s to dry line, li ne, not la ck of ability to w ork, become a talker; hard work isSkill , political directi on, una ble to understand whe n confus ed. Flag of the CPC Ce ntral Committee and the Committee's requirement s into D epartment's re que st, to a holisti c and concerted efforts, subje ct to the overall situati on. Se cond, cadres a nd strive t o play a n exemplary role of party members and ca dres of har dworki ng and cle an, emphasi zes lea d, shift, le d. Lea d is to a dhere to set a n example, to le ad by exampl e, deal with the relati onshi p betwe en i ndividuals a nd parties, real le ad role shift is in order t o strengthen the s ens e of responsibil ity, creati ng a fighting force; lead i s to a dhere to strict requirements , strict manageme nt and strict s upe rvision. T hree cat ch ba sis a nd strive to enhance the combat effective ness of the party orga nization. To accor ding t o Constituti on on grass -roots party of requirements , to implementati on good basi c system, for members for, regardles s of party positi ons has more hig h, a dministrativ e terms has more bi g, any w hen are t o has Organizati on conce pt, active participate i n organizatio n activities , cons ciously a cce pt party of supervis ion; to do ba sed sex w ork, manageme nt good members , service good members , g rass-r oots party to usi ng members organizati on re ceived t urne d, and members thought re porte d, and party of Conference and dues pay, opportunities, master member s of basi c sit uation, care member s life. Four to focus and work hard to res olve. Comrades, t he above is w hat I give you guidance in the new Constituti on. H ope every Member of the party to pass t he tutor, deepen our under standi ng of the Constitution in t he party's g uidi ng ide ology a dvancing with t he times, consci ously link their ow n thinki ng and pra ctice, after caref ul study, rea d and carefully understand, thi nk, relate, apply what t hey have lear ned. Not only r uns t hroug h the mas s line of the party Constituti on to lear n the new e ducati ona l practi ce all the time, but al so to harvest as a good starting point to learn, study and work to do better in the fut ure, and strive to create a new sit uation for school educati on contri bute their

新效地控制大豆苗期病虫害的发生危害,对大豆孢囊线虫病的防治效果在 60%左右,对大 豆根腐病的防治效果在 75%以上,对大豆根潜蝇的防治效果可达 90%以上,施药后可促进 大 豆 地 上 、 地 下 部 的 生 长 期 发 育 , 使 大 豆 产 量 增 加 10% 以 上 , 具 有 较 显 著 的 效 益。 3.新制剂可以在大豆生产中应用 经过大田示范应用新型制剂可以在大豆生产上应用,可列入到无公害大豆生产技术规程中, 起到大豆苗期病虫害的可持续控制的作用。 (二)创新点 1、选用植物性杀虫剂与杀菌剂微肥多无混配筛选出了绿色的大豆种衣剂。 2、首次应用松木屑防治大豆苗期病虫害取得了较好效果,为下一步开发打下了基础。 3、首次应用绿色木霉防治大豆苗期病害获得了成功。 五 技术重点与适用范围 本项技术重点是根据高寒地区大豆病虫害种类及发生特点组配成绿色种衣剂配方和筛选出 有效的生物制剂用于试验与示范。 本项技术可适用于呼伦贝尔市及相邻省区生态条件相同的地区无公害大豆生产中应用。 六推广应用情况及存在的不足 本项技术已在扎兰屯市、阿荣旗、莫旗等地大豆生产中应用,累积应用面积 30 万 hm2,部 分研究成果已在内蒙古农业科技,内蒙古民族大学学报等刊物发表,取得了较好的社会,生 态和经济效益。由于大豆苗期病虫害种类多,危害期长,春季生态条件年间变化大,研究工 作经费不足等综合因素影响,有些研究领域未能深入,有许多方面还处于空白,不少难题还 需继续探索。 2008 年扎兰屯市农业专业技术人员继续教育考试试卷 姓名 单位 成绩 一、名词解释 1、公共植保:公共植保就是把植保工作作为农业和农村公共事业的重要组成部分,突出其 社会管理和公共服务职能。 2、绿色防控:绿色植保就是把植保工作作为人与自然界和谐系统的重要组成部分,突出其 对高产、优质、高效、生态、安全农业的保障和支撑作用。 3、农药的毒性:农药的毒性是指药剂对人体、家畜、家禽、水生动物和其他有益动物的危 害程度。 4、生物防治:是指利用生物或生物产物来防治病虫害的理论与技术,包括选用抗(耐)病 虫品种,利用生物因子,微生物、植物、动物和转基因等农药防治,以及作物诱导抗性与交 叉保护作用等措施。 5、生物农药:是指利用生物活体或其代谢产物,以及通过仿生合成具有特异作用的农药制 剂,是今后农药产业中的朝阳产业。 6、动物源农药:指动物体的代谢物或其体内所含有的具有特殊功能的生物活性物质。 7、交互保护作用:是指接种弱毒微生物诱发植物的抗病性,从而抵抗强毒病原物侵染的现 象。 8、病害虫的生态控制:是指通过栽培、管理措施,创造有利于农作物生长发育,而不利于 病害虫繁殖、蔓延的环境条件,从而达到避免或控制病虫害的目的。 9、物理防治:主要利用热力、冷冻、干燥、电磁波、超声波、核辐射、激光等物理因素抑 制、钝化或杀死病原物,达到防治病害的目的。 10、色板诱集法:主要利用害虫的趋色性进行诱集,如白色可诱集蓟马,用黄色捕虫板可诱 杀蚜虫、白粉虱、斑潜蝇等,用蓝色捕虫板可诱杀棕榈蓟马,

Thank you very much. ----The Constitution Party rules address t he seri es really is a qualifie d party members earlier thi s year, all party members to t he Ce ntral "series of party rules, a nd a ddre ss of the party Constituti on, be qualified party members" lear n education is a n important de cisi on. XI Jinpi ng, Secretary G eneral chaire d a Politbur o meeting i n Februar y, were devote d to educati onal programmes and made a n important s peech recently personally approve d specific programmes, many important instructi ons. On Apri l 6, 13t h, 15t h, the Central and aut onomous regional party Committee, the municipal par ty Committee held e ducational symposi um, and related matters For s pecifi c de ployment, we hel d on March 4, H ong sha n distri ct party worki ng Conference al so pr opose d to carry out thi s activity. All together this for um toda y, main purpose i s to study and imple me nt in depth General Se cretary XI Ji npi ng on "two" important instructions for learni ng educati on, st udyi ng and impleme nting the 括 包 状 现 展 发 前 目 析 分 再 后 然 性 要 必 及 普 出 引 势 优 过 通 , 用 作 的 统 系 理 管 息 信 店 药 国 我 了 究 研 先 首 文 本 Central and aut onomous region Party Committee and municipal party Committee "two" spiritual e ducation Symposi um, arrangement s for district -wide learni ng educati on. T he following, I would like to stre ss four poi nts, mainly talk about "lear ning" and "doi ng" issue, a nd strive to make pe ople re ally figure out why, w hat to learn a nd how t hey learn, what to do, how to do it, eve ntually rea che d little succe ss, is al so lea ding a le sson in party lect ure. After both leaders a nd the cadre s, regardle ss of Branch Se cretary or an ordinary party member, to impleme nt certain boundaries e ducation "g ive a Party lecture" requirement, practi ce speaki ng, speak m uch fanfare, innovation wa y, down t o Earth, e nsuri ng educati onal succes s. First, you know, pay special attenti on t o education and to res olutely overcome sluggis h thi nking, a nd bore dom "two" study and e ducation, poss ibly quite a few comrades, say i ng "education every year, alm ost every year" fool fool, I feel t hat with thi s in mind who may be many. If carrying this i dea in mi nd, w hat does that tell , how the political cons ciousness i s not str ong a nd not see t he pulse of the situati on, no, t he "Rip van Winkl e", lost or



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